Abstraction, Information Hiding and Encapsulation

Abstraction: Abstraction is a process by which, Only essential information extracted or displayed  for specific purpose and hide the implementation details.

For Example: When I press the break paddle of a bike, I come to know that bike stops, But the details actually what happen when I pushed the break hide from me. In class, Abstraction is provided with the access specifier (public, protected, private) means which member variable  or member function is to be shown to outside world or not. It can be shown by one of the example in of c++ class.

                                                                                                                                         Example 1.1

Information Hiding: Information hiding is simple in make sure that out of a system some or all information is hidden and this will not impact the system as a whole like hiding the information of object structure its implementation is hidden.[Booch, 1991].

Encapsulation: The process of Binding or wrapping up the data and Information or member variable and member function in a single unit(class) is called the Encapsulation.

Analogy with a company :Like an IT company X in which there are number of different section like HR, Finance, IT and Sales etc. Now Suppose HR section Head some information related to the sales of the year. Then HR manager will not directly this information from the sales department because this is bind with SALES not with HR. So to access this information HR Manager need to take permission from sales manager and then get the information. As data of the sales section can be manipulate by the employee of the sales department only SALES department is binding the sales data and  Sales Employee which can perform some operation on this data.  It also perform the data abstraction because  when we are encapsulating the data and information using the access specifier we are using data abstraction also, As shown in above example(1.1)

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